Yes, the chapter morphology of flowering plants can be learned on its own.
Flowering plants or Angiosperms
Almost 80% of the living species are flowering plants or angiosperms. They are a vast group with a population of about 300,000 species. Angiosperms are supposed to have a gymnosperm ancestry.
Flowers in angiosperms are the part that holds either male or female reproductive organs or both of them.
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These reproductive organs take part in sexual reproduction and the fertilized egg grows into a seed is inside the ovary within the flower. The evolution and development of several features like a flower and a vascular system having specialized cells and tissues have made the angiosperms adjust to the different branches of terrestrial habitats.Visit here: life2news
Flowering plants are considered an important part of the eco-system due to its extensive diaspora. Most animals, birds, and humans, are dependent on the flowering plants. Angiosperms differ from other plants in many ways. They differ from other plants as they have a flower which is the reproductive organ of the flowering plant. They reproduce through the method of pollination. It is a process in which pollen grains are transported from anthers to the stigma of the flower in which the zygote is formed by fertilization.
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Morphology of flowering plants
According to plant morphology, every plant has got two systems. They are the root system and a shoot system. The root system goes deep into the ground and forms a system of its own. The shoot system grows above the ground level and has many plant parts.
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The root can be described as a brown, nongreen and it is a part which grows underground. The root along with its branches is called a root system. Roots can be classified into three types. They are:
- Taproot system- The taproot can be found in dicotyledonous plants. It grows for the radicle of the germinating seed, together with the primary roots and branches, which develops into the taproot system. Some examples of dicotyledonous plants with taproot system are mustard seeds, mangoes, grams and banyan.
- The fibrous root system- The fibrous root can be found in ferns and in all monocotyledonous plants.
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This root grows from thin, branching roots or primary roots, that grows from the stem. The fibrous root does not go deep into the soil. Thus, when it matures, these roots seem like a mat or a carpet on the floor. Some examples of monocotyledonous plants with the fibrous root system are wheat, grass, paddy, onion, carrots and grass.
- The adventitious root system-The roots which comes out form any part of the plant body other than the radicle is known as the adventitious root system. The adventitious root system gives mechanical support, vegetative propagation, etc. some examples of monocotyledonous plants along with the adventitious root system is known as the adventitious root system.
Functions of root
The general functions of a root are:
- To store
- To anchor
- To absorb water and minerals
Regions of root
There are three regions of a root. They are:
- The root caps
- The region of maturation
- The region of elongation
The stem is an important part of a plant. It ascends upwards which produce branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and help in the transportation of water and minerals. It is the aerial part of the plant which grows from the plumule of an embryo or the germinating seeds.
When the stems are young, they are green in color and then becomes woody and brown. The stem is developed into specific structures according to their specific function.
Characteristics of stem
Few of the important characteristics of the stem are given below.
- The stem grows from the plumule and epicotyl of the embryo.
- The stem is straight and it grows towards the light away from the soil.
- A terminal bud is present at the apex of the stem.
- In angiosperms, the shoot is divided into nodes and internodes.
- Young stems are green in color and are photosynthetic.
- There is multicellular hair.
- The stems and branches of mature plants produce fruits and flowers.
Check this important question:
- A) Mustard has hypogynous, actinomorphic flower, parietal placentation, syncarpous gynoecium and belongs to family Brassicaceae
- B) China rose has superior ovary, twisted aestivation, monodephous stamens and axile placentation
- C) Pea has bilateral symmetry, vexillary aestivation, diadelphous stamens, marginal placentation and belongs to family fabaceae
- D) Chilli has radial symmetry, epipetalous stamen, swollen placenta, monocarpellary gynoecium and belongs to family Solanaceae
- E) Lily has actinomorphic flower, axile placentation, imbricate aestivation, tricarpellary and trilocular gynoeciom belonging to family liliaceae.
Different forms of stem
The stem has the following forms:
The leaf is the main photosynthetic part of the plants which are usually flattened. It absorbs light and also exchanges gases through the stomata.
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The main parts of the leaf are the leaf base, petiole, and lamina which grows at the node and produce a bud at the axil. Venation is the arrangement of veins and veinlets. The leaves are green in color due to the presence of the photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll. It has a tiny pore or opening pores called stomata, where exchange of gases takes place.
Leaves are divided into simple and compound leaf based on the pattern of a leaf blade. There are other types of leaves which are based on their shapes, arrangement of leaves, and venation.
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